Systematic and Unsystematic Risks: How to Mitigate Them


There are always risks in the business world. Understanding these risks enables us to seek more effective approaches to mitigating them. What are these risks and how can they be categorized?

There are two main components of risk: systemic and unsystematic. Let’s explore each risk and learn the best way to mitigate it.

Systematic risk

Systemic risk, also known as “market risk” or “non-diversifying risk”, is the result of external and uncontrollable variables, which are not industry or security specific. Inevitably, it affects the entire market leading to price fluctuations of all securities. Risk can be attributed to a number of broad economic factors such as inflation, changes in interest rates, currency fluctuations, recessions, etc.

Since systemic risks cannot be controlled, investors can avoid them by staying away from all risky investments.

Financial Planning – Systematic Risk Mitigation

Systematic risks can be mitigated by certain course of action. How can they be mitigated?

Asset allocation may partially mitigate systemic risks. Possession of different categories of assets (eg bonds, cash, commodities, etc.) with low or zero correlation helps because they arrive differently from macroeconomic factors; some asset categories may rise and others may fall.

Asset allocation should also be adjusted according to estimates. Investments that have been overvalued should be avoided or owned less. When systemic risks are mitigated within a diversified portfolio, cash may be the most important and undervalued asset category.

Another way to reduce systemic risk is through protection. Investors can take advantage of opportunities such as buying safeguards for their securities. A hedge is the risk management strategy that investors use to hedge the loss of unrealized gains. The value of the securities will increase if the value of the securities falls. However, the options are for a fixed period of time and once they expire, investors must buy new ones to stay safe.

Unsystematic risk

In contrast, unsystematic risk refers to risk factors that are specific to a company, industry and sector, and can be controlled to a certain degree. These factors include the management of a company, financial practices, financial health and its competitive position in the market.

Financial Planning – Unsystematic Risk Mitigation

Unsystematic risk can be reduced by diversifying. To achieve this, the investor can diversify his product portfolio, so that revenue does not depend on just a few products. Much risk is reduced when an investor’s risk spreads between different industries (such as banks or healthcare) and asset classes. For example, if an investor owns a diversified portfolio with more than 10 individual investments compared to just one, the damage done to their portfolio is minimized when something negative happens to some of the companies.

Again, unsystematic risk can be almost eliminated by diversification as it is not related to market risk.

Both systematic and non-systemic risks are part of the business parcel. Through risk management solutions as mentioned above, these risks can be partially mitigated, and investors will be able to see an increase in portfolio returns and optimization in the investment portfolio.


Robinhood Review: The Free Trading Application


About two weeks ago, I downloaded a fairly new trading application called Robinhood and thought I would share my initial review with you today.

I have wanted to trade stocks for the longest time, but the fees that come with trading or going to a broker have always hindered me. If you are like me and do not have much money to trade, these fees can bring you profits. Robinhood tempted me to sign up for the fact that the app is free but also because a promotion allowed me to get a free stock with registration.

Is it worth downloading Robinhood?

It’s been a long time since I’ve been excited to make any kind of money online. The internet is saturated so much in almost every market and many companies are looking to suck you up so they can make a quick profit while you do nothing. Robinhood is not that company.

Once you sign up for the app, you attach Robinhood directly to your bank account. I ended up getting a free stake in Fit Bit and eventually ended up selling that stock. Robinhood notes that there is a 1 in 1000 chance of getting a big stock like Apple. From the first stock I got along with the 4 I now get for referrals, the best stock I got was valued at $ 10. Nothing big, but free money is free money. You must hold the shares for 3 trading days before you can trade or sell your shares.

How does Robinhood make money?

Similar to a bank, Robinhood makes money (and is able to give free shares) because they collect interest on the money you put into your account. As long as their customers ’acquisition costs are below their interest gains, Robinhood will be a profitable business. Seeing that some users have over $ 100,000 in their account, you can easily see why Robinhood is able to offer free trading.

That does not mean it is perfect.

Daily trading is something you can not do unless you have over $ 25,000 in your account. I think you can get up to 3 or 4 trading days in a 5 working day period, or you can be labeled as a model trader. That said, Robinhood can be used for volatile trading and long-term investments.

What about the interface?

The Robinhood interface is very basic and bare bones. Although I have not had the opportunity to dive into Golden Membership, here is what I will say:

I do NOT recommend using Robinhood to decide when to buy and sell a stock. Instead, compliment the Robinhood App using Market Surveillance AND Carriage to get the information you need before trading.

Buying a stock with Robinhood is very easy.

With the basic membership (which is free), you get up to $ 1,000 you can use Robinhood cash while you are waiting for your money to be transferred from your bank account to buy a stock. In short, you get the stock immediately (with money from Robinhood) up to money transfers from your bank account. This is very interesting, as it is critical to get into the right price points; Especially with the fast-paced trade.

Trading options are also another option within Robinhood.

You will have the ability to enter into contracts. That said, I’m relatively new to the stock market, so all I’m really immersed in is buying and selling stocks.

How Much Money Can You Make With Robinhood?

The next question really can be, how much money can you lose? If you are playing in the stock market and do not know what you are doing, it is very possible that you may lose (and not make money) with this app.

I am not a financial advisor so I can not offer financial advice. What I can say is that I would definitely recommend reading books on how to trade stocks successfully, then practice in a simulation application before actually using real money.

Overall rating:

Aside from the fact that you can not do daily trading in Robinhood unless you have over $ 25,000 in your account? If you are looking to buy and sell stocks for the first time without any trading fees, this will probably be an app worth trying.

I give the Robinhood rating 4 out of 5. The application is very basic and makes buying and selling stocks easy. Unfortunately, the app is also so basic that you will want to use Market Watch and Barchart before making any purchasing decisions.

You can earn a lot of money with this app, but you can also lose a lot of money.

At the end of the day, Robinhood can be a great way to make money, but if you are unsure of what you are doing, you may lose money. Would I replace my Roth to fund this claim? Certainly not. But I would use Robinhood to increase my income through wise investment and by referring family and friends to the application for more free shares.


Pension, Inflation and a Mars Bar


Some say inflation is good. The capital of your mortgage breaks down as the price of your home rises for example! This is an argument for the interest-only mortgage, which advisers do not recommend. Repayments are much less if no capital is repaid. Take an extreme example – 35 years ago I arranged a mortgage for a lady to buy a house on End Terrace, she paid 8 8,995 for it and wanted a 95% ,5 8,545 mortgage with a 450 450 deposit. Today the house is worth 160 160,000 and she would still have 8 8,545 mortgage if it had been just Interest. People get more than that for car finance today!

100 years of inflation has caused the annual salary of teachers to increase from 6 176 per year to 30,889 without average. Gold was 93 18.93 an ounce, now over 600 per ounce and rising.

In 1971 the UK came out with the Decimal – this was a good excuse to set prices, which many people fear will happen even if we join the Euro. Inflation can be judged by Mars Bars, which are often mentioned in price comparison charts. In 1982 a Mars Bar cost 0.16p, now over 0.45p. Allowing this price increase, let us use March Bare quantities to compare inflation: –

itemsBars of March 1982Mars Bar 2007

House – 147,775 – 474,053

Porsche 911 – 104,500 – 170,000

Aga Gas Double Furnace – 6,218 – 15,121

Washing machine – 1,875 – 560

Gallon Petrol – 10 – 11

Beer Pint – 4 – 7

Frozen chicken – 4 – 10

Now let’s look at pensions. If you received a personal pension, as I did, and paid 100 100 a month from the age of 30, you are projected to receive a pension of around 12 12,000 a year or 6,250 March Bars per month at the age of 65. In fact now at age 55, with declining returns and paying for 25 years, the forecast has dropped to ,000 3,000 a year or 555 March bars a month!

So it can be said that ‘One Mars a Day – Helps You Work, Rest and Pay’!


Profit: A Necessary Evil



Much has been said about profit and its implications in the society. Some people have supported the existence of profit. Others have argued against it. This essay intends to establish the need for existence of profit.

Those who have supported the existence of profit have their own reasons that also support the morality of it. Those who have argued against profit have their own reasons that see the immorality in it. For profit to be seen as good it ought to be carried out within certain levels of morality – In this case it will be accepted. For profit to be seen as bad it will exhibit certain levels of immorality thence rejected.

When profit is obtained within acceptable levels, it may not be condoned, but when obtained at excessive levels without proper justifications, it may carry with it immorality (in which case it is abnormal). That is why we refer to profit as either being normal or abnormal profit.

Justification of Existence of Profit

(a) What is profit?

When goods and services are produced and provided, there is need to understand the costs involved so that a price that includes some return can be established. This selling price includes a mark-up on the cost that eventually gives the profit.

Selling price – costs = profit

Therefore, profit is the money that is obtained above the production costs when goods and services are sold.

For example, when a person sells goods or services to customers, s/he needs to understand what it costs to provide or produce such goods or services and deliver them to customers so that a price can be fixed that brings a profit. For instance,

1. Mr. Kamau sells goods in his shop or kiosk that costs him sh.5, 000. The revenue obtained totals sh.6, 000. Therefore Kamau gets a profit of sh.1, 000.

6,000 – 5,000 = 1,000


2. A small scale farmer (Simiyu) uses inputs that go into cultivation of crops on his farm totaling sh.28, 000. After selling what is produced on the farm, he realizes revenue of sh.33, 000. Therefore his profit is sh.5, 000. See Table below

Revenue – cost price = PROFIT

33,000 – 28,000 = 5,000


Clearing of land -500

First ploughing -2,000

2nd ploughing -2,000

Seed (50 kg) -2,500

Fertilizer -6,000

Labor -3,000

Weeding (labor) -4,000

Harvest -3,000

Preparation and storage (before sale) -5,000

TOTAL -28,000

N.B: considering all living factors, this farmer never has any money in his pocket since the sh.5,000 has to be applied on purchased items e.g. salt, tea leaves, sugar, cooking oil, soap, lotion, basins, cups and kettles, plates, spoons, water jars, clothes-ware and bed-ware, paraffin, matches, leave alone educating children. The farmer relies on his farm for food stuffs.

3. A lady who sells ripen bananas at a local market experiences the following costs and revenues:


Cost of banana bunch 150

Cost of municipal ticket 20

Revenue from sales 220

(S.P) – C.P. = PROFIT

Sh.220 – Sh.170 = Sh.50

N.B: The examples above reflect the general business activities. The corporate business organizations however would call for extensive elaborations that would still arrive at profit that justify their organizations.

(b) How is profit arrived at and the view of it

The above examples give a picture of how profit is arrived at and depending on its level; it therefore can be seen as bad or good

Understanding man’s needs

This essay is talking about profit. The question is HOW and WHY does profit exist? Profit comes about because people have needs that need to be satisfied. Some other people sell to these people (customers) the goods and services that satisfy these needs at a price. But we have seen that price includes the costs of production and a mark-up.

Therefore the satisfaction of man’s needs that leads to trading or commercial activities eventually give rise to profit that’s being talked about here. The inner question of WHY profit exists is discussed elsewhere in this paper.

Identification of resources to effect production

In order to satisfy man’s needs, production has to be effected. The resources that are needed needs to be identified. They will include: Raw materials, equipment machinery, and labor. Therefore production is the transformation of raw materials using equipment, machinery, and human labor to produce goods and services that will satisfy man’s needs.

N.B: We are touching on needs and resources because there will be costs involved in trading transactions that involve sellers and buyers – that will lead to profit for the sellers. The process to produce will call for some organization to effect production. This organization can either be a single person or a business entity that is selling goods and services to customers.

Need for production organization and provision of services

What is a business organization?

This is the legal coming together of people and other resources to provide goods and services to would-be customers at a profit. The assumption in this definition is that such an organization is acceptable under the law for the society, and is registered. The goods and services ought to provide satisfaction to the buyers (customers). The price at which the goods and services are sold is expected to include a profit.

The coming together of such an organization will not only identify the resources but also the costs or rewards that go to such resources (factors of production)

Factors of production Rewards

Labor – Wages and salaries

Land – Rent

Capital -Interest

Entrepreneurship -Profit

N.B: the rewards here can be interpreted as costs that go to the factors of production and hence they need to be understood as they relate to the profit model

Example of people with needs:

A person who is thirsty buys a soft drink

A person with torn dress takes it to a tailor for repair

A person with long hair may go to the barber for hair cut

A student who wants to write may buy a pen

A family may need a house or place to stay in

A person with uncared-for shoes may need a brush and shoe polish

Needs therefore come either in the form of basic or secondary and have different priority for each individual

Business organizations also exist at different levels e.g. proprietary businesses -individually owned; partnership businesses that may involve two or more persons who have decided to come together to pool their resources, and corporations or companies that involve investors who buy shares in the organization that are registered with the registrar of companies.

Understanding costs and model leading to profit

Business as it exists at any level involves various costs. These include:

(a) Fixed costs – which are incurred whether or not the business is producing goods and services e.g. the cost of equipment and machinery, buildings, land

(b) Variable costs – these are costs which vary according to level of production or activity e.g. raw materials, labor (direct labor)

(c) Overhead costs – these are costs which cannot be directly attributed to specific units. The way they are treated is that they are usually lumped together and applied to the goods sold e.g. water, electricity, administrative costs.

(d) Marginal costs – this is a cost that is applied to every additional unit produced. It is arrived at by dividing change in quantity produced (at any particular level) by change in total costs (at that particular level). N.B:

(e) Total costs = fixed costs + variable cost + overhead

In our profit model, it can therefore be established that:

Revenue – [fixed costs + variable costs + overhead] = profit

It is also very necessary to understand the concept of average costs. These are simply the various types of costs applicable to individual units produced and sold, bearing in mind that we have businesses that are involved in manufacturing and others are involved in buying already manufactured goods which they in turn sell to customers or consumers.

Examples of average costs: average fixed costs, average variable costs, average total costs

Why should a business or business person understand costs?

This is required because the acceptable price that will lead to acceptable profit can only be arrived at after considering these issues. And also it must be understood that businesses contribute to the development of economies. A good example here is a look at the infamous “Triangle Trade”. Cheap or free feedstock such as cotton, cocoa, tea, latex and timber (as well as human resource – slaves), were exported from Africa – at the west coast of the continent, and from Latin America to Europe via London. In exchange, finished products were sold at exorbitant prices to the same source nations. This heralded the eventual mismatch of economies across the Atlantic hence terminologies such as the “first world” and “third world” countries. The manner in which businesses conduct themselves can contribute to the reduction of poverty in the society. They can also promote entrepreneurship in the society, more so in poor countries. As a business goes about its activities has an impact on the improvement or degradation of the environment.

Why should business pursue the profit motive?

As businesses go about pursuing a profit, how should they conduct themselves in relation to the environment and utilization of resources, how they utilize the profit earned considering the fact that the world on which we live on has become a village? This is to say that issues and problems have become globalized.

Although it is known that businesses operate in two environments viz. internal and external environments, their impact is well assessed or evaluated against various aspects that can collectively be described as “the social responsibility of business”. The business hereby assumes the position as caretaker of resources i.e. it carries out its activities for the good of the people.

Business entity as a citizen of the land has various obligations to the people and community which it serves. These responsibilities come under the following concerns which hitherto are the core responsibilities of business:

(a) creation and provision of safe goods and services to the people

(b) creation of employment that provides an income to the workers

(c) attending to employee welfare, ensuring acceptable timely pay (wages and salaries)

(d) settlement of debts with suppliers

(e) meeting with investors’ wishes

(f) complying with the law of the land and government e.g. paying taxes

(g) protecting the environment i.e. carrying out business activities and undertaking corrective measures without harming the environment e.g. in the area of water, air pollution, noise, solid waste pollution, chemical residue pollution as is in the case of agriculture

(h) Philanthropic contributions. This is where the business contributes to worthy causes in the society.

Therefore it can be seen that if business does not behave responsibly there are several social problems that can follow e.g. loss of income, break up in marriages, suicides, mental disease, etc.

N.B: as business carries out its objectives and makes a profit within agreed justifiable limits and undertakes to meet these obligations socially (where the disadvantaged persons in the society access services) then it can be viewed as enjoying a moral profit.

But where a business carries out its activities and in one way or another denies society access to goods and services, or subjects the society to some suffering and yet it enjoys good profits, it is then having greed profit i.e. the profits are enjoyed by only a few even with disregard to the environment.

How greed profits and normal profits come about

(Understanding the market structure in which the business operates)

Generally, most businesses operate in the following market structures:

(a) Pure competition – this is where businesses enters and exits the industry with ease i.e. at their own will or strength. Pure competition operates under certain assumptions:

– Easy entry and easy exit.

– the business takes the price set by the industry

– it assumes no transportation costs

(b) Monopoly – here a single business dominates the industry or even forms the industry e.g. the Kenya power and lighting company, KPLC. Here, the business sets the price. The ability to remain monopoly depends on strong financial muscles, control over key technology or resource

(c) oligopoly – here the market consists of a few businesses that serve the market e.g for the petroleum companies such as the BP,Shell,Total…

(d) Monopolistic competition – here the market structure exhibits some pure competition conditions and monopoly conditions.


From the foregoing argument, it is established that profit is a necessary evil i.e. it is needed for the business to operate in a healthy way in which case it is moral

It is only when businesses include ultra-vires objectives in its activities and uses the profits earned with disregard to the society and the environment that it becomes immoral


The way businesses make profit and how they conduct themselves dictates how they are relating to morality of profit. E.g. in the case of monopoly businesses, businesses seem to go for greed profit which is viewed as immoral. Irrespective of whether they are contributing to social responsibility or not the pursuit of profit should not be looked at as a good in itself, but as an avenue of achieving good in the society hence a necessary evil.

It must also be understood that it is important to understand the existence of the diversity of the people of the world and their communities e.g. the people in South America; Asia; Australia and New Zealand; the people in Europe; in North America and the people in Africa cherish their own respective views. We have however established here in this paper a consideration of the position of the global village against the current universally shared interests, markets, currencies, education systems and information technology etc.

For African societies, it is better if they frame the development of their economies based on attachment to the soil. This statement is framed so because looking at the activities that can lead to creating more employment and sustenance have attachment to the soil and the environmental management e.g. hunting; pastoralism; agriculture; tourism; mining; and the currently astronomical generation of electricity via hydro, or solar. Enhancement of such activities shall ultimately steel the current dwindling of crops growing; production of food that shall hence stimulate the development of agriculturally related industries to satisfy man’s needs. There is an avenue for people to use their potential by buying the needed products. This shall also strengthen the industries that produce them.


Financial Antivirus Stimulus Packages and Gold


The new coronavirus is unfortunately deadly not only to humans but also to the global economy. Central banks have fired their bazookas, but monetary policy is powerless during pandemics with supply disruptions and their self-quarantine effectively freezing economic activity. Interestingly, even central bankers seem to acknowledge their impotence. As Jerome Powell said during his last press conference:

“We do not have the means to reach individuals and especially small businesses and other businesses and people who may be out of work … we think fiscal responses are critical.”

It did not take long to convince governments to intervene and increase their spending. Spain, for example, announced a stimulus package of $ 220B or nearly 16 percent of its GDP. The UK unveiled an even bigger incentive: an unprecedented $ 400 billion bailout package, worth nearly 15 percent of GDP, to “support jobs, incomes and businesses”. Germany went even further: the country authorized its state-owned bank, KfW, to lend to companies up to $ 610 billion, or nearly 16 percent of GDP, to mitigate the effects of the coronavirus.

Trump has already signed two packages, but worth only $ 108 billion. But do not worry: Americans have not yet said their last word. Republican and Democratic senators have reached an agreement on a stimulus package of approximately $ 2 trillion. Yes, you read that correctly. Two trillion plagues! But if you think there are too many, you are wrong! In terms of US GDP, two trillion is ‘just’ 9.4 percent. So do not worry, there is room for further stimulation if needed.

Will that fiscal stimulus help mammoth? Well, it depends – the devil is in the details. Much depends on what governments will spend money on while dealing with this pandemic. Expenditures on health care and research on vaccines are very much needed, so even fiscal hawks (like us) would not complain. But, it can not come out in the F-35 mode and also let’s say that financing infrastructure projects would not be very useful now. You see, this is a unique situation in which all economies freeze in order to flatten the curve and prevent the collapse of the healthcare system. But when firms do not operate, they have no income. Without income, people have no wages. Without salaries and income, loans are not repaid. Without repayments, the banking system collapses – and the whole system collapses like a house of cards. So support is needed to prevent it – so that people can pay their debts smoothly.

Whether light fiscal policy will be beneficial or not remains to be seen. But the unprecedented fiscal stimulus recently will have a very important consequence. Fiscal deficits will increase. Forget austerity measures, surpluses or even a balanced budget. So public debt will inevitably follow suit.

Why is it important? Well, global debt levels were already very high. At Q3, global debt, which includes borrowing from households, governments and companies, rose to $ 253 trillion, or over 322 percent, the highest level recorded. In many countries, public debt will rise to volatile levels.

Moreover, it increases the chances of the United States entering stagflation, and this means that investing in gold is very likely to be particularly attractive. It might be a good idea to consider learning more about this precious metal before it becomes clear to all investors – when it does, its price is likely to be much higher already.


Canadian ETF Strategies: Why A Canadian Bond ETF Is Better Than Investing In Individual Bonds


Bonds are an integral part of every Canadian’s portfolio for a good reason. Bonds hold the “promise” of fixed income with regular cash flows. But with interest rates moving to all-time lows, the pressure to make every penny count has never been greater. Creating such an exposure wisely can make all the difference in returns.

A portfolio for the average Canadian probably contains fixed income securities, otherwise known as bonds. Bonds are especially attractive to those retired or near-retirement investors as they seek to replace their regular and consistent salary with a similar interest income stream.

Unfortunately buying bonds in Canada is not as easy or cost effective as buying stocks. Unlike capital trading on an open stock market with fully transparent supply and demand, Canadian bonds must be purchased through a ‘trading network’ which effectively removes all the efficiency and transparency of a fully functioning liquid market. .

This is where it becomes uncomfortable for the retail investor. Compared to giant financial institutions investing billions of dollars in joint ventures, it is extremely challenging for the retail investor to buy a bond with similar efficiency to these large financial institutions.

The only thing that could be worse than buying bonds through Canada’s network of traders is buying a mutual bond fund. The average spending ratio in a Canadian bond mutual fund is close to 1.75%. In an interest rate environment where long-term yields hover around 3.5%, this is like splitting my hamburger with a stranger and he taking half of it in one piece. I do not think so!

How, then, can the retail investor get the fixed income exposure with a nice seniority and a tight supply of demand? The average investor should consider ETF Bond to create fixed income exposure in their portfolios.

ETFs are managed by large financial institutions and traded on any number of stock exchanges just like your preferred shares. The benefits for the average investor are numerous.

An ETF bond is essentially a bunch of different bonds grouped together in a portfolio and traded on the stock market. Unlike individual bonds themselves, there is more liquidity in bond ETFs, which makes for a narrower spread of supply demand. Basically, investors can easily get out of their position at any time without the cost of large transaction fees.

Only this advantage is that all retail investors need to convince themselves that bond ETFs are the most efficient way to gain exposure to the fixed income market. In addition, these ETF Bonds have large amounts of assets under management and have a superior purchasing power. For example, the total assets under management for major Canadian Bond ETFs is more than $ 2 trillion. Guess what – this gives these ETF companies a lot of power in negotiations with the best bond issuers. Not only are they able to trade in and out of bonds with much better spreads than you or I can ever get, but they also have access to the best issuers.

While the stock market is not very perfect, investors should always have the ability to buy and sell a security that is somewhat close to the current market price, in the bond market, this is not the case as the spread between supply and demand is in order. of size several times much larger. For the retail investor buying individual bonds is not only unfavorable but often risky. Using economies of scale and keeping the system complete, bond ETFs minimize transaction costs and ensure Canadian investors get better value for their dollars.


"The Origin of Species" and ICO-TIN – The Difference Between Earth and Rest


November 24, 1859. The day “the origin of species” was published and the world was presented with a unique theory of existence, the reasons for existence and the processes of generation, evolution and survival of different species. Older and with everlasting life were amoebas and others of similar kind. They have gone through all the ups and downs; through the rough phases presented by Mother Nature.

“The Origin of Species” was one of the good books, written to target everyone, to be read and understood by anyone. It was liked and had been popular in all classes, whether students, scholars, scientists or visionaries. It was popular all over the world because of its neutral approach and comprehensive language. Theories are still applicable and the book proved useful for future biological and relative theoretical experiments and practical applications regarding the origin and evolution of different species on planet earth.

Relative similarities between “species origin” and blockchain:

Whether Satoshi Nakamoto is the “Darwin” of the Crypto Age and cryptography is the “origin of species”, given the fact that it all exists in the very world we all live in and has a significant effect on the whole world. It is understood, eventually though, by almost all over the world, however it has turned out to be a popular and widely accepted phenomenon.

While other cryptocurrencies failed to survive and have lost their existence in the winds of change and evolution, just like previous “single-celled” organisms, before the amoeba. Bitcoin, being the strongest of the species, has been the “amoeba” of this relative hypothesis. It has been the cause, the inspiration, and the benchmark for other, more complex organisms to follow. These bodies, Ethereum for example, were introduced with a new concept of execution, which was the ICO (initial currency offering). Relatively, the natural principles of development, nutrition, growth and reproduction have been widespread and known to all.

Discussions, scientific and religious, in time and length:

“The Origin of Species” sparked various heated, scientific-practical, and religious-orthodox discussions, and similarly has the blockchain. The Orthodox community, or the dominant religious groups at the time, were not flexible enough to allow any new theory to prevail in the society they had long ruled. Likewise, the financial system which has prevailed since society was introduced with money and currency, does not want to change and is rigid in its trends set for two centuries. Perhaps she fears the importance it may lose if its principles are replaced.

The book had conspired for a long time, and this reign is widely known as the “eclipse of Darwinism,” that is, from the 1880s to the 1930s. “for quite a long time. People were limited to talking about “Darwin theories” in public or on social platforms. The current timeline can be compared to the same kingdom, where people can not talk about “cryptography” in financial meetings or forums related to centralized banks or social platforms related to finance, where the monopoly is a servant of the big banks old and credit companies.

Coexistence and definition of “EVOLUTION”:

Likewise, a number of other enthusiasts came up with new icons that were turned into cryptocurrencies in exchanges, and similar theories on the evolution of the world, following the “origin of species.” Darwin’s theory was found and proven to be practical and applicable, rather useful in new biological findings. Similarly, the concept of ICO (initial currency offering) was introduced to the world. This led to a revolution, opening the doors to the participation, monetically, of “non-technical” individuals in the crypto world.

As before, the concept has been questioned, challenged and unfortunately, due to some irregularities and initial failures in the execution of some applications, (which was although a very small ratio compared to the successful ones) , critics had a chance to celebrate.


“The origin of species” was later compared to being almost a definition and explanation of the evolution of different species on earth. It was also explained, what was the difference between the habitats of the earth, for the other planets perhaps, because of which, LIFE was probably not possible elsewhere. Darwin did not talk about it; nor Nakamoto, for “ICO”.

ICOs have been challenged as a concept by “religious” authorities and bodies around the world. These “religious” financial systems (rigid in principle and unhappy to change) have their limits. They make solid mandates for any new integration or experiment, introduction or invention within the system. These mandates tend to be a “dead end” for ICOs these days.

To provide a window into that “dead end” for ICOs, and with more explanations and integrations into that “rigid mandate” policy of “religious bodies”, the ICO-TIN needs to be introduced. To provide the necessary habitat for ICOs, and to make “Earth” different from other planets, ICO-TIN makes a safe path between progressive ICOs and old “religious” financial systems.


The difference between the other planets is definitely the availability of air and water around the habitable environments. As Darwin puts it, “life finds a way.” Of course he did. ICO-TIN has found a way to take the ICO to the next level and make things safe and useful, mutually.

The challenges and the way ICO-TIN makes a useful platform for both parties, as well as the ICO presentation teams, can both be analyzed and understood in the study explained below.

The challenges in starting an ICO now are as follows:

1) The smart contract has its limits. He can either discover the address to which the cryptocurrency is to be transferred, this is the unique address associated with a particular ICO, and once the address is discovered for all or at least a large number of people who are interested in receiving part in that ICO, they can always log in to make payments.

2) The longer the contract is, the more it is considered to be efficient, but the more codes it has, the more gas it consumes per transaction. So it is not at all cost effective to make a smart contract.

3) At that point in time, where an ICO cannot accept more than 14 transactions per second, a COMPLAINT situation arises. In this situation, the set parameters encourage to complete the transaction anyway possible, regardless of the price of gas.

4) An SPF failure or single point occurs when such a scenario is created.

5) Compliance is another item to take care of, where two things need to be addressed.

The first is the KYC process, which is more complex than the others because it has to be integrated with an image upload that makes the system quite exposed and vulnerable to hacking and malware threats.

The second is accounting, which again is a big task to regulate and review carefully because there are different cryptocurrencies in exchange and one does not want to change the payment method in any medium that does not use it often.

6) Making the strategy has to be very planned and perfect. It includes three aspects, now these three aspects are set in the traditional ways of ICOs, these three ways were:

Auction – when a certain model judges, what transaction should be decided with priority, based on the fact which transaction is supported by a higher price for GAS

BOUNTY – the award is normally given to participants or non-participants for introducing more people to the program or ICO. This kindness has been the number of arguments quite often.

GAS – gas has been a very significant factor when it comes to an ICO issue because there are so many transactions to be paid and even a very small amount transaction ends after consuming GAS worth many times the same amount .

Implementation and necessity of ICO-TIN

ICO-TIN is the answer to all those challenges for someone who has been busy developing his technical and crypto-related skills and has never been so eager to be able or smart to face the challenges of world crime market.

It is more of a “professional” approach. Since someone gets paid for something, he has to be great at it. Anyone can cut their hair, but we prefer a barber because he knows his job better. This explains the necessity of a professional package that is ICO-TIN.

It is an Enterprise solution for new ICO launches and offers a personalized package that also includes ICO start-up and marketing.

The solutions to the issues were as follows:

1) The intelligent contract will not be available for use; the unique address will never be revealed to any of the participants. There will be parallel and more secure ways to make payments.

2) The easiest way to pay will be, that through any payment method, (FIAT and BTC currencies as well) you have to buy USD within the system and its further purchase will be regulated with those USD.

3) This complete system will be an “OFF-CHAIN” program, integrated with the system anyway; therefore there will be no transactions, nor consumption of any GAS during transactions made by participants

4) Payments to be made by the system, however, will be adjusted according to GAS cost-effective periodic pricing, and so will be a system of minimum liability for back and forth transactions.

5) There will be no auction for transactions and so GAS consumption will not be a problem anyway.

6) KYC and accounts will be managed in different ways, with a system which will not be in direct compliance with the ICO, so it will not be a threat to the ICO if image uploads are needed.

7) Accounts will be perfectly managed by individuals and can be done even more efficiently.

To take the “origin of species” to a new level, although it was a challenge for biologists and others associated with it, but they could not let Darwin’s work and contribution go in vain. Similarly it has been a responsible job to bring vision to future generations and to encourage progressive youth today.

It is not at all ambitious if “ICO-TIN” is considered to be the revised version of “Nakamoto’s” “species origin”. It paves the way for more experimentation and probability of combining the “two worlds” together.


Pandemic, Massive Debt, and Gold


In our previous article, we highlighted the link between the current coronavirus pandemic and how this can translate into rising public debt in many countries. We also pointed out that gold is likely to take advantage of this situation. In this analysis, we will supplement the above by showing you how much debt is likely to increase in selected countries.

Let’s start with Italy, whose economic bases have already been weak: here we mean the fragile banking system, stagnation of growth and high public debt (see chart below). Now, as the European country most affected by the virus, with the highest number of cases and fatalities, and the freezing of its economy, Italy will enter a severe recession (the economy is expected to shrink by at least 5 percent), while Public debt will increase from 135 to over 140 percent of GDP, or even more – as a reminder, Italy’s public debt increased by more than a few percentage points in the first year of 2009 alone (from 106.5 to 116.9 percent of GDP).

Other southern countries will also face the resurgence of the sovereign debt crisis. This time Greece’s debt to GDP starts at over 180 percent, compared to 146 percent in 2010; Spain with 95 percent versus 60 percent; Portugal with 122 percent versus 96 percent; and France 98 percent versus 85 percent. And private debts have also increased in recent years!

The US is less indebted and less hit by COVID-19 (at least so far), but their economy is also projected to shrink by 2020. The combination of lower GDP revenues and higher-cost taxes public debt will increase the deficit and Federal debt from just over $ 23 trillion, or 107 percent of GDP, in 2019 to almost $ 26 trillion, or more than 120 percent of GDP, in 2020.

Now, that means we have a serious debt problem. How can all these countries pay off all their debts? Well, they can raise taxes. It could happen in the US if a Democrat gets the White House. However, taxes are already high and unpopular. So governments can also accelerate economic growth – but it is very difficult to take into account pre-pandemic trends and accelerated response. And if they raise taxes, growth will certainly not accelerate. So the only option left – and most likely from a historical point of view – is to inflate the debt. Financial pressure with the collection of mandatory investments in “safe” assets, which are guaranteed not to go with real or mass inflation data.

With higher inflation, the real value of government debt will be lower. And central banks have already eagerly started buying government bonds with newly created reserves. This means that one of the important implications of the current pandemic and the subsequent policy response will be higher inflation. Probably not immediately, as the negative shock of demand will create a deflationary pressure (although the negative shock of supply creates inflationary pressure), but we should not neglect the threat of inflation. This means only one thing: when the dust settles and investors understand what is happening, they will return to the last protection of inflation – gold.


Krugerrand Gold Coins – Five Advantages of Buying Gold Krugerrands Versus Other Bullion Coins


Krugerrand gold coins are the oldest of all gold bullion coins today. Issued in 1967 by the South African government, their level of popularity became so great that it resulted in the minting of other popular gold bullion coins, including the Canadian gold maple leaf and the American golden eagle.

I covered the history and basic information of Krugerrand in my previous article entitled, “Krugerrand Gold Coins – The First Coins with Gold or Silver Bullion”. I also covered some interesting facts and little things about currency in a subsequent article, entitled, “Krugerrand Gold Coins – 10 Fun Pieces of Information.” If you are interested in reading them, just do a search on EzineArticles or Google by title!

In this article, I would like to talk about the advantages of buying Krugerrand gold coins over other modern bullion coins.

1. High durability

The 22k Krugerrand contains a gold alloy combination of 91.67% gold and 8.33% copper. The inclusion of copper makes them more durable than other modern 24k gold coins. The coin is very resistant to scratches, abrasions and ticks!

2. Low price

Krugerrand generally has the lowest price above the spot price of gold. At the time of this writing, the coin was trading at $ 9.00 locally compared to $ 16.00 for the Canadian gold maple leaf, $ 34.00 above the spot for the American Golden Eagle and $ 50.00 above the spot for the Buffalo golden!

3. Immediate liquidity

Because the South African Krugerrand is very popular, it is very easy to buy and sell them domestically and internationally.

4. Easy to maintain

Like most bullion coins, the Krugerrand compact size makes it convenient to store and transport. Most Krugerrands are packaged in three-inch plastic tubes that fit snugly inside home safes or bank deposit boxes.

5. Better than rods

While it is true that the premium of gold bars is usually lower than that of gold coins, unlike Krugerrand gold coins, it is a pain to store and transport them. Plus, most bars need to be valued when sold, an additional cost you do not have to worry about when selling Krugerrand!

Whether you have just started buying bullion coins or are looking to add to your collection, I think you will agree that Krugerrand gold is not just a big deal but a high quality bullion coin that should be the foundation of any portfolio investors


Creating Extra Income – 3 Ways To Earn Extra Income On The Side With A Full Time Job


As the bills come in, the money leaves your bank and you may start to feel like you can no longer live on the payroll. Then, you can start looking for ways you can make money on the side while you are still working your full time job. If this is your situation, then I’m glad you found my article and I hope it can provide you with some side jobs you can do with ease.

1. Online Surveys – Online surveys require little work and pay somewhat worthily. Some companies pay terribly, others pay well, but unfortunately no company I have heard of pays fantastically! Feel free to look for yourself even though you find a high-paying survey website! I personally do online surveys mostly out of boredom, but I actually get some money here and there every month. However, a ton of websites do not offer money. They can offer something like “Signs” in which they can be used in exchange for money or items such as a new gaming system or jewelry.

2. Restart Help – If you know anything about beautiful looking resumes, you can help others make their resume professional and earn extra income. I did this even when I was in high school, very simple and the payment could be quite good. I used to get $ 15 for a CV, which is not much, but it was more than enough while in High School with no bills other than my phone and car insurance. If you go online you can also find “Resume Template” that can help you help others with their resume. Set your price and start trading your skills.

3. Recycling – This may sound silly because you will certainly not be able to pay your bills seriously by recycling. However, I wanted to include this in the review because not only can you earn some extra money from doing it, but you are also playing a huge positive role in your community and for the whole world. The earth needs love and recycling obviously does it to a certain degree. Plus, over time the authorities have tried to make recycling an easier and more efficient thing to do so now is a perfect time to start your recycling career!

Keep in mind these are side jobs, you will not be able to generate significant revenue from the jobs listed. They are easy to make and relatively quick to complete and you will be able to earn some extra funds in your portfolio. If you are looking for ways to earn a substantial income, all from a side job, there are definitely opportunities for that as well. Be sure to check out other articles on this topic for more information.